Reference Grammars

Reference Grammar Network

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Bosnian /
Croatian /
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This set of reference grammars has been designed for advanced-level language users and linguists to compare semantic categories across languages. Each grammar also provides background information about the language and its speakers. In some cases the author has included a topic which provides greater illumination of the language (e.g. tongue twisters, slang/profanity, or a set of exemplary texts). These sections are indicated by a shaded background in the left-side navigation pane.

Please note that some of the grammars are very large, in particular Romanian and Georgian, and are best accessed through a high speed connection.

Armenian Grammar

A dialogue-based handbook of Armenian grammar for both beginning and intermediate students, by Arshak Balayan.

Armenian Grammar

Romanian Verbs Module

Detailed analysis of the formation and use of moods and tenses for Romanian verbs. By Dana Cojocaru.

Romanian Verbs: Moods and Tenses

Kazakh and Chechen Grammar

Zura Dotton and John Doyle Wagner conduct thorough studies of Kazakh and Chechen language use, morphophonemics, and syntax. These grammars also reflect recent orthographic changes to Kazakh.

Kazakh Grammar
Chechen Grammar

Wymysorys Grammar

An extensive descriptive grammar for 21st century Wymysorys by Alexander Andrason & Tymoteusz Król.


Grammar Outlines

Very detailed outlines for Albanian and Romani are available for download. By selecting the "bookmarks" tab on the PDF you can access some of the chief topics addressed in each grammar.

Albanain Flag

Romani Flag


Uzbek Language Materials

Uzbek language materials by Zumrad Ahmedjanova. Brief grammatical sketches of Uzbek, partnered with extensive oral and written exercises using authentic, contemporary Uzbek.


Each grammar has been developed by linguists who are experts in their field and has been peer-reviewed to assure quality, accuracy, and consistency.

Victor Friedman University of Chicago
Arshak Balayan American University of Athens
Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian (BCS)
Wayles Brown Cornell University
Theresa Alt Cornell University
John Leafgren University of Arizona
Bulgarian Verb Supplement (available through the Bulgarian grammar)
Grace Fielder University of Arizona
Laura A. Janda UNC-Chapel Hill
Charles E. Townsend Princeton University
Howard Aronson University of Chicago
Victor Friedman University of Chicago
Ronald F. Feldstein Indiana University
Victor Friedman University of Chicago
Dana Cojocaru University of Bucharest
Romanian Verb Handbook (available through the Romanian grammar)
Ronald F. Feldstein Indiana University
Edna Andrews Duke University
Zumrad Ahmedjanova  
Alexander Andrason University of Stellenbosch
Tymoteusz Król University of Warsaw

Comparing Grammars:

The user interface features a list of linguistic categories in the left-side navigation pane. Choose a category to read about it in the current language. By selecting a different language from tabs along the top, you can compare the same category in that language. Italicized category names indicate distinctions or subdivisions which are unique to that language or the present grammar.


Advanced exercises for each language are available through the link on the horizontal bar at the top.


Language resources available elsewhere on the net are available through the link on the horizontal bar at the top.

Terms of Use:

The SEELRC Reference Grammars were made possible by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education under the Language Resource Centers Program of Title VI of the Higher Education Act. The Slavic and East European Language Resource Center was founded in 1999 and is a joint center of Duke University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The SEELRC Reference Grammars, like other products and materials developed by SEELRC, are disseminated without profit to interested users through our web site (, CD-ROM editions, and other computer-based technologies. Use of the SEELRC Reference Grammars is subject to the following terms and limitations:

  • Any interested person may download or otherwise copy any of the SEELRC Reference Grammars in electronic (PDF) format only for personal, noncommercial, nonprofit use.
  • You may copy this computer file onto a single computer and may also make one back-up copy of the computer file.
  • You may print a single copy of any of the SEELRC Reference Grammars only for personal, noncommercial, nonprofit use. Making multiple copies of any of the SEELRC Reference Grammars in either electronic or print format is strictly prohibited without the express permission of SEELRC.
  • Any interested person may include in their web site a link to one or more of the SEELRC Reference Grammars on the SEELRC web site, but re-posting or otherwise distributing the SEELRC Reference Grammars on any other web site is strictly prohibited without the express permission of SEELRC.
  • You may not copy, modify, rent, sell, distribute, or transfer any part of the the SEELRC Reference Grammars except as provided above, and you agree to prevent unauthorized copying of this material. Any distribution or sublicensing of the SEELRC Reference Grammars is expressly prohibited.
  • This product is provided as is without any express or implied warranty of any kind including warranties of merchantability, noninfringement, or fitness for a particular purpose.

Anyone wishing to request permission from SEELRC to use the SEELRC Reference Grammars or other materials owned by SEELRC should send a letter identifying the extent and purpose of the proposed use to SEELRC, Box 90260, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA, or an email to

Downloading Grammar:

Each full grammar (in PDF format) can be downloaded through the link on the horizontal bar at the top. Each grammar is also bookmarked according to the author's original table of contents.

Other Features:

Sections of the grammar which merit particular attention are listed at the end of the category list and are indicated by a shaded background.

The horizontal tab bar contains links to exercises, downloadable versions of the grammar in PDF format, and other resources.

Technical Requirements:

  • Adobe Acrobat version 3.0 or higher and
  • Internet Explorer version 5.0 or higher or
  • Netscape version 6.0 or higher

Note to Macintosh Users:

Adobe Acrobat does not currently support display of PDFs in a web browser under OS X. In order to have the full functionality of the Reference Grammar Network, you should use the Classic Environment (OS 9.x). 


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